This course includes a study of radiobiology with special attention to cellular effects, and early effects vs. late effects of radiation. Discussions on radiochemistry, cell sensitivity, organ effects, and radiation risk estimates will be included. A study of the advanced radiographic principles of radiation protection, measurement, and shielding will be presented. Protection of the patient, radiographer, and others in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation therapy will be emphasized. ALARA and patient education to minimize radiation exposure will be discussed.